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Pain can disturb a patient’s ability to sleep.1 Consequently, patients may wake with daytime tiredness and suffer drowsy periods throughout the day. Mental alertness and the ability to operate machinery may be impaired, compromising work safety. A lack of...
Aspirin is not routinely recommended for use in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australian guidelines1 or internationally. However, it has been used in the past for primary prevention of CVD, partly due to the extrapolation of its...
Deintensification is defined as ‘stopping or scaling back the intensity or frequency of medical interventions that are currently part of a patient’s ongoing management.’1,2 The risk to benefit ratio changes as patients age, particularly when glycaemic control is tight (HbA1c...
Onychomycosis is a relatively common fungal infection that lies underneath the nail plate or nail bed. It most often presents as yellowish, white, black or green discolouration of the nail. Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be able...
Global approaches to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease have shifted towards personalised health care. For patient-centred practice, the genetic profiles of patients need to be considered alongside environmental exposures. Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow. COPD affects mainly older people and includes conditions such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It can lead to...
kidneys

Renal medicines

The kidneys are amazing organs. These compact ‘bean’ shaped filters weigh around 150 g and process about 25% of total cardiac output or 1,200 mL of blood/minute.1 Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be able to: Describe the...
Introduction The once high morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases was transformed during the 20th century with improvements in public health, medical practice, vaccination and antimicrobials. Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be able to: Discuss the causes...
Diabetes mellitus overview Type 2 diabetes mellitus (or just diabetes) is a chronic, progressive condition primarily characterised by two metabolic dysfunctions: insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.1 Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be able to: Identify current guideline...
Background Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, acts on the distal portion of the renal tubule as a potassium-sparing diuretic; increasing sodium and water excretion and reducing potassium excretion.1 Learning objectives After reading this article, pharmacists should be able to: Recognise when compounding to...